Dog Training Secrets: Reinforcers and Punishers

Dogs gain practical information about the social and physical environment through the consequences of their behavior so they can control and manipulate significant events vital to their interests. Animal behaviorism defines reinforcements ans punishments as follows:
Reinforcement (R) increases the relative probability of the behavior it follows.
Punishment (P) decreases the relative probability of the behavior it follows.
So dog decides what is reinforcement or punishment, and what is not. We can only observe the dog and its gesture and behavior. It is also good to decide and know what kind of behavior you want before you start training, because reinforcement will affect to dog´s behavior. Example food is calming reinforcement to the most of the dogs, but playing with toys is exciting.

Reinforcers and punishers can be divided to positive (+) and negative buy Ponstel online (-):
Positive reinforcement (R+) occurs when dogs behavior is strengthened by producing or prolonging some desirable consequence.
Negative reinforcement (R-) occurs when dogs behavior is strengthened by reducing or avoiding some undesirable consequence.
Negative punishment (P-) occurs when dogs behavior is weakened by omitting the presentation of the reinforcing consequence.
Positive punishment (P+) occurs when animals behavior is weakened by presenting the previosly escaped or avoided consequence.

Positive punishment involves lots of risks and disadvantages. It is associated with the elicitation of various concomitant emotional states, especially frustration, anxiety and fear. Punishment usually makes dog to fear something that is present in the training session. Its very likely that dog´s fear is directed to the owner, because she/he is always present. occurs.

In dog training, using both positive reinforcement and positive punishment has lots of disadvantages. First of all, the power of rewards weakens. Secondly, withdrawal of reward (negative punishment) isn´t so good tool in dog training anymore. It is very powerfull to “tell” to the dog when it is doing something wrong by withdrawing reward. Punishment doesnt also tell dog what to do. Its important to remember that severe punishment causes severe risks and disadvantages. Altough we wouldnt think the ethical side of punishment, there´s still lots of good reasons not use positive punishments. When we reinforce dog´s behavior, it becomes entrepreneurial. But using positive punishments in dog training could lead to dog´s passivity, it starts to avoid the things that could lead to punishment. And if punishment has been unpredictable and uncontrollable in dog´s perspective – dog is never quite sure when punishment is going to come, and never quite sure why it is administered – it can start to avoid all activity. In that case dog´s training is nearly impossible or at least very slow, because we have to use lot of time to get some action in dog. Positive reinforcement satisfy some psychological and physiological need. For example, when dog is hungry and it learns that sitting leads to food, after several positive experiences (sitting–>food) the probability that the dog will sit on cue is increased. Trough this simple lesson, the dog not only learns how to sit, but, more importantly, the dog learns that its action can control the environment. And that is a outcome that makes learning itself intrinsically rewarding. Reinforcement also exhibits many irregular and, perhaps, unanticipated characteristics. For example, while the opportunity to eat represents a very strong reinforcer for a hungry dog, the dog may also find just smelling the food reinforcing.

When we look reinforcers and punishers in dog training, it is good to remember that the provision of anything that the dog would rather be doing at any given moment may function as a reward. And on the other hand, anything that the dog would rather not be doing at any given moment might be used as a punisher. During the training process, dogs form certain expectations and predictions about outcomes associated with their behavior. So if a dog receives a reward that is significantly smaller than expected, the outcome is perceived as punitive (and disappointing), resulting in the trial rendering the response weaker. So I repeat myself: dog decides what is reinforcement or punishment, and what is not.

Timing and repetition play very important role in dog training. For a reinforcer to be effective, it must closely follow the target behavior and optimally, the reinforcer should be presented immediately after the target behavior is emmitted. Dog only learns if the consequences of its behavior follows relatively fast. Using only (example food and toys), particularly teaching new things to the dog, reinforcing can be difficult. Clicker trainers use clicker as a , but it could be any kind of stimulus. Conditioned reinforcer is needed only when we want to reinforce very precisely, in second ot two. But teaching dog long-lasting activities, example to “stay”, it is not usefull anymore.

When using reinforcement in dog training, it is important to remember chedule them right. During the early stages of training, a new behavior is reinforced every time it occurs and once a stable operant level is obtained, dog´s behavior is usually brought under the control of an intermittent schedule of reinforcement. For example when you are teaching your dog to “follow”, intermittent reinforcement makes the behavior more resistant to extinction. Dog never knows when the reward is presented to it and it maintains good performance through the hole exercise.

Article written by animal trainer Hannele Hoffren

Posted under Puppy obedience training

Negative Reinforcement is a Great Teacher

My editor and I were sitting on a bench on the edge of a park discussing my awkward syntax when we noticed a young boy walking with his father. At the edge of the swings and slide area was a wooden border about one foot high.

The little boy was balancing on this wooden mini-fence when he fell — taking a tumble such as only an inexperienced and innocent two year old can manage. He landed on the asphalt sidewalk and was as startled as much as shaken.

Like a downed athlete he tried to gather himself as his father picked him up. The boy’s surprise turned to fear when he saw the scrapes on his knee and elbow. Tears came to his eyes but he did not cry. His father made certain he was not injured and set him back down.

For several minutes the young boy stood there. Finally his father told him it was time to go and started walking away. The boy turned to the wooden border and stepped back up.

As he finished walking down the section he jumped triumphantly off with the flair of an athlete who had just scored. His face beamed with accomplishment.

This incident kept replaying in my head for several days. There were several points that kept standing out.

The first was the surprise the boy had when he fell. The pain, although intense, was not necessarily more than the surprise. The second was the father did not pick up his son and say the sorts of things like “it’s all right” or “the hurt makes it better.”

It clearly wasn’t all right and the hurt did not make things better. Once the father realized his son had buy Prograf online no real injury, he allowed his son to learn from the experience.

The son was allowed to deal with the reality himself and on his own terms. There is an old saying that goes “that which does not kill, strengthens…” Maybe it’s something like that.

Then the boy climbed back up and continued the quest. The challenge and fun far outweighed perceived pain and risk even though he had been shaken and scared just moments before.

The joy he expressed when jumping off showed that not only had it been fun but he had overcome a significant challenge and was proud of that accomplishment.

There is a parallel in the workplace. A good manager lets his people take certain risks and fail. When they fail, the good manager does not chastise or degrade. The good manager allows her people to learn from their mistakes and failures and to try again.

Because the boy found the fortitude to try again he not only succeeded but gained the experience of facing an obstacle and overcoming it. Many parents and managers will not allow this simple process to take place.

By denying their children and employees opportunities to make mistakes they unwittingly force compliance and even silly over cautiousness. Good managers and good parents allow their employees and children to learn to help themselves.

The results in the workplace are clear. Those employees that are engaged enough to try new ideas are almost always better employees. Those employees that learn and improve are more productive.

And the same can probably be said for children…

Jack Deal is the owner of JD Deal Business Consulting, Santa Cruz, CA. Related articlesmay be found at and

Posted under Aggressive Dog Training

Dog Training Tips – Vital Tips For Training Your Dog

Very few people are a natural at training their dog. We don’t all instantly understand what it takes to teach a dog to obey us. However it is vital that we don find this information – because an untrained dog can be a real problem.

Untrained dogs can be aggressive as they try to challenge your leadership, they can rebel and cause problems, such dogs can not be trusted around children and people visiting the home. Untrained dogs, quite simply, need training. Which is why we put together these dog training tips for you.

Dog Training Tips

· Always reward your dog for good work. By giving the dog praise and treats you are positively reinforcing their good behaviour and encouraging them to do more of it.

· It takes a dog time to learn what a command means – so always buy Premature Ejaculation Cure online try to be consistent in your command giving.

· Consistency is also vital when you are choosing what to reward and punish for – dogs are easily confused by contrary commands and rewards so make sure you are consistent.

· The person you want the dog to see as the master should always be the one doing the obedience training.

· When your dog has mastered a command try testing them in another situation. A dog might grasp it in the garden with just the two of you but they need to do it when it is contrary to what they want to do too.

· Dogs don’t manage to understand what they did before, so punishing them for something you didn’t catch them doing will just confuse them.

Obviously there are many more dog training tips than that, but these should give you a good grounding in what it takes to train a dog.

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How Your Dogs Obedience Training Can Help Him Develop Essential Skills

Copyright (c) 2009 James Mahoney

You may find that training your dog to be obedient is a long and frustrating process. All you want him to do is listen when you call him and yell at him, sounds like it should be simple.

When looking for a dog or puppy, you no doubt put a lot of time and effort into picking out the perfect “dream” companion. After you have been together for awhile you spoil him with as much love, affection, and attention you can give him. But after awhile, after you’ve tried everything you could think of, you find that your “perfect” dog still isn’t trained and is starting do things that annoy you.

You realize that you need to do something about your dogs obedience training.

A dogs obedience training includes the process of teaching a dog to exhibit certain desired behaviors in specific circumstances. Some of these circumstances include:

* Training in dog basic obedience commands (part of the dogs obedience training)

* Guide dog training for the blind

* Rescue dog training to help locates victims in a disaster situation

* Training for hunting dogs so they can learn to perform instinctive behaviors at appropriate times

The specific behaviors taught in each circumstance are different, but they each use similar underlying principles.

For your dogs obedience training the goal is to establish the correct relationship right from the start. When you first bring your puppy home, he has gone from an environment of a natural pack order with his brothers & sisters and his mother, and some contact with the breeder. When the puppy sees that there are no other dogs around he might start to think he is in charge now. You will need to start establishing to the puppy that you are in charge not him.

Puppies are fine with that because in the wild as pack animals, dogs have the natural instincts that cause them to accept training. Dogs are by nature either leaders or followers and you must instill in your dog that you are the leader of the pack.

The Basics of Your Dogs Obedience Training

This starts with basic obedience commands, and these commands are the key to having a good relationship with your dog. This stage of the dogs obedience training should be gentle and supportive, without punishment. At this point they should be starting to learn the simple commands like “come”, and being sure to use praise quite a bit when the dog responds correctly to the command.

Teaching More Complex Concepts

When buy Professional Plasma Tooth Whitening Kit online your dog has mastered the more basic commands, start to introduce more complex concepts (like “stay” or “sit”), and that you break down the task into smaller, easier exercises first. For instance you should first teach the dog how to sit properly, before you ask him to respond to the command.

Consistency in dog training is important along with positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is must be done immediately during or after your puppy has followed the given commands, or there is a chance that he could associate the praise with something else besides the intended action.

As you are beginning your dogs obedience training remember that timing and consistency are key when training with your young puppy. Every day you should be planning, when and how to work on these essential skills with your dog, and then try to perform them at the same time every day.

The training sessions should be fun, and should even include games, praise, and hugging. Ideally your dog should be able to look forward to each session, as he would his daily exercise.

J. Mahoney is the owner of Dog Trainers Just feel free to visit where you will find a resource providing you with advice on all aspects of dog training, house training and dog health.

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Posted under Puppy obedience training

Dog Training: you Must be the Alpha Dog

The One Unarguable, Universal Fundamental about Dog Training is:

You have to be the alpha dog. If you can’t bring yourself to be the boss in your relationship with your dog, then you will have real problems in training him to be an obedient, loving companion. If you just want to treat him like a baby and let him do whatever he wants, then he will!

But he won’t respect you!

It’s really just a matter of common sense. Your dog must Respect You, Trust You and Love You – in that order! Only then will he pay attention to you and do what you tell him – first time and every time!

It’s easy to forget that your new, adorable puppy is an animal! He’s just your new baby, isn’t he? You must remember that he doesn’t think like you. His dog instincts are completely different. If you study a group of puppies in a litter, as soon as they are old enough to scramble about, they will try to assert themselves over each other.

Dogs are pack animals (wolves are an ideal example) and there is only one leader – the Alpha Male. All the members of the pack are conscious of their standing in the hierarchy and will attempt to move up the order. This is why your dog must be in no doubt that you are the alpha member of the group. If he feels that he is above you in the pack, then he will ignore your commands or even try to dominate you.

Here is a typical case study: We have all seen this situation on TV. The husband, the wife and the dog – often quite a small dog. The dog is extremely possessive of the wife, sits on her lap and won’t let the man near her. The dog growls, barks and nips any time the husband approaches.

Why is this? Let’s get into the mind of the dog. He is convinced that he is the alpha dog, she is the alpha female and he is protecting her from the husband, who is just another pack member. And the actions of the humans just reinforce that conviction. Who is buy Hoodia Patch online most to blame here?

Sorry ladies, it’s You! Does the wife push the dog off her lap and tell him to get down? No, she doesn’t because part of her is loving the fact that the dog adores her so much. Until he realises that he is number three in that “pack” then the situation will not change, unless the man gets so fed up that he takes a big stick to the dog, or the ultimate solution, the dog ends up in the rescue center. We all know that’s not the solution

This doesn’t mean that dog training has to involve a reign of terror. Your dog should never be afraid of you. Let’s repeat it, He Should Respect You.

The Good News. There is a much easier way! Think about it, your dog is dependent on you for all his needs. You provide food and shelter, exercise, affection and stimulation. He gets these how and when You decide. By manipulating the supply of these needs, it is easy to impress on the dog that you are in charge.

You just let him wait and give him what he wants, only when he has done what you’ve told him. In the above scenario, if the husband takes over the feeding duties and applies this method, the dog will soon get the message.

Feeding is probably the easiest example. If you let him jump all over you as soon as you reach for his feeding bowl, he is the one calling the shots. But if you make him sit or lie down, at least a few feet away, until you put the dish on the floor, then he will soon realise who is in charge. Of course, you must persist with this routine each and every time – and Don’t Give In!

Once your dog realises this, he’ll be putty in your hands. Dogs are essentially eager to please and really enjoy the praise and rewards that come with good behavior.

A quick word here on treats. If, during training, your dog gets a treat every time he does something right, then who is calling the shots? It is obviously important to reinforce good behavior with rewards but it should not be a treat every time. Vary the reward, from a pat, or a “Good Boy!” and then the occasional treat. At the end of the training, a nice long walk can be the ultimate reward.

If you have an extended family, with children in the home, then it is even more important that the dog must realise and accept his position in that situation. In his eyes, it’s a pack, isn’t it?

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Aggressive Dog Training Tips-Top 6 Aggressive Dog Training Tips

Are you fed up with the aggressive ways of your four legged companion? With the correct aggressive dog training tips this problem can be dramatically reduced. Although aggression is a difficult issue to deal with, there are different ways in which the issue can be resolved. In this article I’m going to give you top 6 -:

1 – Consult a Veterinarian – If your dog hasn’t had a history of being aggressive and begins growling, biting or snapping at people, talk about it to your vet. This sudden change in his behavior can be a sign of a medical problem which needs immediate medical attention.

2 – Determine the situations – Determine the situations in which your dog displays aggressive behavior and avoid them. Out of the top 6 aggressive dog training tips, this one is really important. The most vital part of training aggression in dogs is discovering the reason behind the aggression.

3- Make a behavior modification program – This can be achieved with the help of a professional behaviorist. For example, if your dog growls when you or someone else from your family approaches his food bowl then you might be asked to approach an empty food bowl and drop some food in it. This way your dog will understand when someone approaches his food bowl he will get a treat and there is no need for him to be aggressive.

4- Never punish your dog for behaving aggressively- You should never punish your dog for acting aggressively. As they say, buy Toradol online aggression breeds aggression. If a dog is punished for being aggressive, it may cause him to show more aggression.

5- Be consistent and patient – You can make use of all the mentioned here, be consistent in your efforts to train your dog and stay patient as aggressive dog behavior cannot be curbed overnight. Be prepared for baby-steps when training your dog.

6 – Socialize Your Dog – The most common reason for dogs to exhibit aggressive behavior is due to the lack of their socialization when they were young. A dog will find it hard to trust people and other dogs that he doesn’t know, if he did not have lot of chances to interact with them while he was young. So, if you have a puppy socialize him during his early stages of his life and you should never deal with dog aggression problems in future.

So folks, those were the top 6 .  When working with an aggressive dog, a good dog training course can be very useful. You will want to look for the one that includes a free consultation with an experienced dog trainer.

Gary Price worked at a vet clinic and an animal shelter, and has had lots of experience with dogs. Visit him at, Train My Doggie, to get more Aggressive Dog Training Tips. Discover which dog training course he recommends at

Posted under Puppy obedience training

Major Dog Training Problems

Dogs are not easy to train. You will have to dedicate time and effort in order t train the dog. Remember that dog training is better when done by professionals. But if you really want to train your dog at home, you will have to make sure that you have learned a few things before beginning.

One you have learned enough to begin, you can start with curing the basic problems. All the dogs have some common issues which you will have to solve. If your dog barks a lot, you will be in trouble. You will have to cure dog barking to start with. You will keep on doing the other things like the dog social training and dog obedience training along with all this.

When you are trying to stop your dog from barking, keep it in mind that dog barking is natural. You can not ask your dog not to bark. But yes, you can reduce it. Your dog will bark as this is the only way a dog knows to express himself. You should start by understanding why your dog barks. If you will know this, you will be able to train him more efficiently.

One important thing to keep in mind is never to reward your dog for his barking. The is all about making the rules and then following them. You will have to make it clear to your dog that you will not be allowing any behavior which breaks those rules. Keep the same rule going with the . Tell your dog clearly that you are not going to reward him when he barks. This will help you to train him even better.

The other major problem with the dogs is digging. Many dog owners are worried by this habit and they want to get rid of it. But the proper time to teach your dog not to dig unnecessarily is the first few weeks. You will have to teach your dog to learn alternatives. The dogs love digging and they should do it. But you will have to make them understand that they can not dig anywhere they like. You can specify a time and a place for them to dig. Most of the good dog trainers take their dogs out and give them time to dig. This helps the dogs and they do not do it in the home.

You dog will behave properly if you are training him well. There are various training methods which you can use. You can learn these methods and buy Metabo UltraMax online see what works best for you and your dog. Some times the same method does not work on all the pets and you may have to find an alterative according to the nature of the animal.

When you are trying to stop your dog from barking, keep it in mind that dog barking is natural. You can not ask your dog not to bark. But yes, you can reduce it. Your dog will bark as this is the only way a dog knows to express himself.

Posted under Puppy obedience training

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